Similarly to the chemokine CCL the level
Similarly to the chemokine CCL-5, the level of the chemokine SDF-1 in the groups of individuals with APD did not differ from its level in the control group. However, a slight increase in the level of this chemokine was recorded in the group of women and men with APD and PTSD as compared with the corresponding control groups. In addition, an increase in the SDF-1 level was higher in the group of women. Ogłodek et al.  conducted the study on the role of the chemokines SDF-1 and CCL-5 in personality disorders. However, the study regarded the change in the levels of chemokines in people with GAD and concomitant avoidant or borderline personality disorder, or in patients with OCD. Therefore, the study results presented in this paper concerning the levels of both chemokines in patients with APD and PTSD are considered pioneer.
Comparing the levels of the chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 an increase in the receptors levels were found in patients with PTSD and APD, and in patients diagnosed only with PTSD. In the group of women with APD and PTSD versus women with only APD a double increase in the level of CXCR-4 was revealed. Nevertheless, no differences in the GSK-923295 CXCR-4 levels were found in men with PTSD and APD versus men with only PTSD.
This result only indicates the PTSD influence on the receptor CXCR-4 levels and that its levels are not affected by personality disorder. In case of the receptor CCR-5, the increase in its levels was found both in patients with PTSD and the APD and in patients with PTSD only. In the first compared study group this increase was the highest. This result indicates significant sensitivity of determination of the CCR-5 levels. Additionally, in the study conducted by the authors of this paper, no changes in the levels of the chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 were found in the subjects with APD belonging to particular sex groups. This parameter distinguishes patients with PTSD and with APD involved in stimulation of the immune system. Similarly as for determination of the chemokine SDF-1 levels in patients with PTSD and patients with PTSD and APD, no papers were found in the literature concerning changes in the levels of the receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 in patients diagnosed only with PTSD or with concurrent personality disorder . Therefore, the results obtained by the authors of this manuscript represent the first data on this subject. An increase in the levels of the receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 in the subjects with PTSD and APD versus the subjects with APD can prove that these receptors are activated under stress factors in PTSD.
As for men, no differences were found with regards to the level of these receptors regardless of whether the men suffered only from APD, or both APD and PTSD. According to the studies of the other authors, both receptors are possible to be involved in the neuroprotective mechanisms of the brain .
The authors of this paper revealed a double increase in the IL-6 levels both in the group of women and men with APD and PTSD. However, an increase in the IL-6 levels was not found in the group of women, as well as men with APD. This result may indicate that PTSD in people with APD may constitute a factor responsible for the increased IL-6 level. Increased IL-6 levels in patients with PTSD were observed by Wieck et al. , Wahbeh and Oken  and by Bruenahl et al. . Wieck et al.  examined people exposed to childhood maltreatment, who were diagnosed with PTSD as adults. This study indicates significance of susceptibility to PTSD in people who experienced traumatic situations in their childhood. However, that study did not consider the effect of the sex or presence of personality disorder accompanying PTSD on the IL-6 levels.
Conflicts of interest
Introduction We have previously cloned from fetal human brain a seven transmembrane domain receptor (Jazin et al., 1993a) which at that time had no known ligand or function. We showed that this receptor was expressed in several human neuroblastoma cell lines, and that it displayed 39% amino acid sequence identity (in the transmembrane regions) to the human interleukin-8 receptor. We concluded that this receptor was not a neuropeptide receptor as suggested by others (Rimland et al., 1991). Instead, we suggested that the IL-8 receptor and the orphan receptor might belong to the same family (Jazin et al., 1993a). Very recently, this orphan receptor was found to be a coreceptor necessary for HIV fusion and entry into T cell lines (Doranz et al., 1996; Feng et al., 1996). Simultaneously, another receptor, called CC-CKR-5, a receptor for the β-chemokines RANTES, MIP-1∂ and MIP-1β, was shown to be the main cofactor for entry of macrophage tropic strains of HIV-1 (Deng et al., 1996; Fauci, 1996).